Glossary

A

acetabuliform:
saucer-shaped
acrodromous:
with veins curving towards the apex
actinodromous venation:
a leaf vein pattern with 3 or more primary veins diverging radially from a single point
actinomorphic:
radially symmetrical on a single plane
adventitious roots:
roots arising from stem tissue
aerial roots:
roots growing in the air
alternate (leaves):
one leaf per node
alternate (stamens):
stamens alternate with the petals
amorphic:
flower shape without definite symmetry; usually with an indefinite number of stamens and carpels and subtended by (above) variously colored petals.
anemochory:
dispersal by wind
anemophilous:
wind-pollinated
annual:
a plant that completes its life cycle within a single year
antepetalous:
stamens opposite the petals
antesepalous:
stamens opposite the sepals
apical:
at the tip
appressed to stem:
pressed close and flat against the surface
autochory:
dispersal via expulsion mechanisms
autogamous:
self-pollinating; pollination occurs within a closed flower
autotrophic:
a plant that produces its own nourishment
awned:
with an apical projection
axillary buds:
buds occuring at nodes along the twig

B

basal acrodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with 2 or more primary or strongly developed secondary veins arising from the base and running in convergent arches toward the leaf apex
basal palinactinodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with the primary veins diverging in a series of dichotomous branchings starting at the base of the leaf
biennial:
a plant that completes its life cycle in 2 years
bracteoles:
the structures that subtend (occur below) a single flower in an inflorescence
bracts:
structures found at the base of a pedicel or peduncle
brochidodromous venation:
a veination pattern with the secondary veins united forming a series of distinct arches
bud scales:
specialized leaves that protect the bud
bulb:
underground stem surrounded by fleshy, overlapping leaf bases

C

campanulate:
bell-shaped
campylodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with several primary veins or their branches arising at, or nearly at, a single point and forming strongly recurved arches before converging toward the apex (tip)
cantharophilous:
beetle-pollinated
caudice:
woody, overwintering stem base found in some herbaceous perennials
cauliferous:
on the stem (i.e. cauliferous flowers)
chamaephyte:
woody or herbaceous evergreen perennial from 25-50 cm tall or whose shoots die back periodically
chambered pith:
compartmentalized pith
chartaceous:
thin and papery
chiropterogamous:
bat-pollinated
cladodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with secondary veins freely ramified (branching) toward the margin
clustered buds:
without readily discernible internodes between buds
connate:
united or jointed
continuous pith:
pith without walls or compartments
coriaceous:
thick and leathery
corms:
underground stem covered with thin, dry leaves
crateriform:
bowl-shaped
cuneate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, widest at the apex, and with straight margins

D

deciduous:
usually losing its leaves with the approach of winter
decumbent:
flat on the ground, but with upturned tips
decussate:
positioned opposite on the stem but with nodes in two planes alternating at right angles to one another along the stem
deltate:
a shape with a length to width ratio of 1:1, widest at base, and with straight margins
depressed obovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, widest above the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
depressed ovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2; symmetrically curved margins, and widest below middle
diadelphous:
stamens with filaments in 2, connate groups
didynamous:
4 stamens; 2 long and 2 short
diplostemonous:
stamens in 2 whorls, the outer whorl of stamens alternate with the petals; the inner whorl of stamens opposite the petals
distichous:
leaves alternate, but with nodes occuring in one plane on the stem

E

elliptic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest at middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
endozoochory:
dispersal through animal ingestion and excretion
epipetalous:
stamens arising from the petals
epiphyte:
plants that germinate and root on other plants
epizoochory:
dispersal by attachment to fur or feathers
equitant:
leaves overlapping, but in 2 ranks
erect:
more or less perpendicular to the ground
eucamptodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with secondary veins upturned and gradually diminishing apically inside the margin, connected to the superadjacent secondary veins by a series of cross veins without forming prominent marginal loops
evergreen:
retains its leaves throughout the winter
exfoliating:
peeling irregularly
exserted:
stamens projecting beyond the perianth
extrorse:
stamens facing outward

F

fascicle:
a cluster of flowers or leaves
fibrous roots:
threadlike and frequently numerous roots
flabellate palinactinodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with several to many equally fine basal veins diverging radially at low angles and and branching apically
furrowed:
with longitudinal grooves

G

geminate stellate hairs:
hairs with more than 5 rays in clusters superimposed on one another
geophyte:
perennial or biennial herbaceous plants with periodic shoot reduction to a remnant shoot system to storage organs
glabrescent:
becoming glabrous with age
glabrous:
having no hairs

H

haplomorphic:
flower type with numerous parts spirally arranged semispherically; petals colored
haplostemonous:
stamens in 1 whorl
hemi-epiphyte:
plants that germinate on other plants and then establish soil contact; or plants that germinate on the ground and later terminate soil contact
hemicryptophyte:
perennial or biennial herbaceous plants with periodic shoot reduction to a remnant shoot system that lies more or less flat on the ground
heterotrophic:
plants that depend on other organisms for nourishment
hydrochory:
dispersal by water
hydrophilous:
water-pollinated
hyphodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with only the primary vein present; all others veins are rudimentary or concealed in coriaceous or fleshy tissue

I

imbricate:
overlapping
imparipinnate:
compound leaves with a single terminal leaflet
imperfect acrodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with acrodromous veins running less than two-thirds the distance to the apex
imperfect marginal palinactinodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with veins arising on the lateral actinodromous primary veins covering less than two-thirds of the blade area and reaching the margins
imperfect reticulate palinactinodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with veins arising on the lateral actinodromous primary veins covering less than two-thirds of the blade area and not reaching the margins
included:
stamens not projecting beyond the perianth
infundibuliform:
funnel-shaped
introrse:
stamens facing inward

J

No entries.

K

No entries.

L

lanceolate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, widest toward the base, and with symmetrically curved margins
lenticel:
a small pore with loosely arranged cells involved in gas exchange
lenticellate:
with lenticels
linear obtriangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 12:1, widest at the apex, and with straight margins
linear triangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 12:1, widest at base, and with straight margins
linear:
a shape with length to width ratios of 12:1 and parallel margins

M

margin:
edge
melittophilous:
bee-pollinated
membranaceous:
thin and flexible
mixed craspedodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with some of the secondary veins ending at the margin and a more or less equal number of (usually intervening) secondaries
monadelphous:
stamens with filaments connate most of their lengths, forming a tube around the style
monoclinous:
with both male and female structures in the same flower
myophilous:
fly-pollinated
myrmecochory:
dispersal by ants
myrmecophilous:
ant-pollinated

N

narrow oblong:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, and with parallel margins
narrowly elliptic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1, widest at the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
narrowly obtrullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, widest toward the apex, and with straight margins
narrowly rhombic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, widest at the middle, and with straight margins
narrowly transversely oblong:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:3-1:6, and with parallel margins
narrowly transversely rhombic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:3-1:6, widest at middle, and with straight margins
narrowly transversely elliptic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:3-1:6, widest at the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
narrowly triangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, widest at the base, and with straight margins
narrowly trullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, widest toward the base, and with straight margins

O

obdeltate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1, widest at the apex, and with straight margins
obdiplostemonous:
stamens in 2 whorls; the outer whorl of stamens opposite the petals, the inner whorl of stamens alternate with the petals
oblanceolate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 6:1-3:1, widest toward the apex, and with symmetrically curved margins
oblate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest at the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
oblong:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, and with parallel margins
obovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest above the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
obtriangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest at the apex, and with straight margins
obtrullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest toward the apex, and with straight margins
opposite (leaves):
with 2 leaves at the same node
opposite (stamens):
stamens opposite the petals
ornithogamous:
bird-pollinated
oval:
egg-shaped
ovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest below the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins

P

papillose:
small epidermal outgrowths
parallelodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with 2 or more primary veins running from the leaf base and parallel to the margin and converging at the apex
paripinnate:
compound leaves with all leaflets are more or less paired; therefore leaves lack a single terminal leaflet
peduncle:
"stalk" supporting either a single flower or an inflorescence
peltate scales:
shield-shaped structures attached to the surface by a stalk
perennial:
plants that live several to many years
perfect acrodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with acrodromous veins well developed, extending at least two-thirds the distance to the apex
perfect marginal palinactinodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with ramifications of the lateral actinodromous veins occupying at least two-thirds of the blade area and reaching the margins
perfect reticulate palinactinodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with ramifications of the lateral actinodromous veins occupying at least two-thirds of the blade area, but not reaching the margins
perigon:
the term used for tepals collectively
phalaenophilous:
moth-pollinated
phanerantherous:
stamens with anthers projecting beyond the perianth
phanerophyte:
woody or herbaceous evergreen perennials, taller than 50 cm, or whose shoots do not die back
plated:
with shallow, circular depressions
polyadelphous:
stamens with filaments in several, connate groups
porrect scales:
scales occuring in a cluster with the central scale larger than the others
porrect stellate hairs:
hairs with more than 5 rays, with the central larger than others
prickles:
epidermal extensions not associated with nodes (i.e., not spines or thorns)
procumbent:
flat, but loosely on the ground
prostrate:
flat on and close to the ground
psychophilous:
butterfly-pollinated

Q

quadrate rhombic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1, widest at the middle, and with straight margins

R

rachis:
an extension of the peduncle serving as the axis of an inflorescence
repent:
more or less horizontal, creeping
resin:
a usually sticky, volatile substance
reticulodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with secondary veins losing their identities toward the leaf margin by repeated branching into a vein reticulum
revolute:
inrolled half way to the midrib or more
rhizomes:
underground stem with reduced leaves and internodes
rhombic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest at the middle, and with straight margins
ridged:
with "prominent" longitudinal ribs
rosulate:
basal and appearing as a rosette
rotate stellate hairs:
hairs more than 5 rays in one plane

S

semicraspedodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with secondary veins branching just within the margin, one of the branches ending at the margin, the other joining the superadjacent secondary
sessile scales:
usually flat structures directly against the surface
shallowly deltate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest at the base, and with straight margins
shallowly obdeltate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest at the apex, and with straight margins
shallowly obtriangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, widest at the apex, and with straight margins
shallowly triangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, widest at the base, and with straight margins
shrubs:
branching near the base and therefore with several to many trunks near the base
simple craspedodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with all secondary veins and their branches ending at the margin
soboliferous:
shoots arising from the ground in clumps; usually applied to shrubs or small trees
spines:
sharp projections developed from modified leaves
spinulose:
stipules modified into spines
spurred:
with any basal or dorsal projections
square:
a shape with length to width rations of 1:1, and with parallel margins
stellate hairs:
hairs with more than 5 rays in more than one plane
stereomorphic:
flower shapes that are radially symmetric; 3-dimensional flowers
stolons:
above ground stem rooting at nodes
striate:
with "fine" longitudinal ribs
subopposite:
2 leaves almost opposite one another at the same node
suprabasal acrodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with 2 or more primary or strongly developed secondary veins arising some distance above the base and running in convergent arches toward the leaf apex
suprabasal palinactinodromous venation:
a leaf venation pattern with primaries diverging in a series of dichotomous branchings starting some distance above the base
syngenesious:
stamens with connate anthers

T

tap root:
primary root that more or less enlarges and grows downward
terminal bud:
the bud at the end of a twig
tetradynamous:
6 stamens; 4 long and 2 short
therophte:
annuals; plants that die after seed production and complete their entire life cycle within one year
thorns:
twigs modified into spinelike structures which may support leaves
transversely depressed trullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, widest toward the base, and with straight margins
transversely depressed obtrullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, widest toward the apex, and with straight margins
transversely elliptic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, widest at the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
transversely linear:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:12, and with parallel margins
transversely oblong:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, and with parallel margins
transversely rhombic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.5-1:2, widest at the middle, and with straight margins
transversely widely oblong:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, and with parallel margins
trees:
with a single or few trunks near the base
triangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest at the base, and with straight margins
trullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 2:1-1.5:1, widest toward the base, and with straight margins
tuberous roots:
a root, or portion of a root, enlarged for storage
tubers:
underground stem tip which is enlarged and fleshy
tubular:
cylindrical
tufted stellate hairs:
hairs with more than 5 rays on distinctly raised mounds of epidermal tissue

U

urceolate:
urn-shaped

V

valvate:
adjacent to but not overlapping one another
vascular bundle scar:
the scar formed by the vascular tissue when a leaf falls off the twig
vascular parasite:
a parasite that grows on living plants
vascular saprophyte:
growing on dead organic matter
vascular semi-parasite:
green plants growing attached to other living, autotrophic plants
ventricose:
inflated
very shallowly obtriangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:3-1:6, widest at the apex, with straight margins
very shallowly triangular:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:3-1:6, widest at the base, with straight margins
very widely obovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1, widest above the middle, with symmetrically curved margins
very widely trullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1, widest toward the base, with straight margins
very widely ovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1, widest below the middle, with symmetrically curved margins
very widely obtrullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1, widest toward the apex, with straight margins

W

warty:
with "knobby" lumps on the twig surface
whorled:
with 3 or more leaves at the same node
widely deltate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest at the base, and with straight margins
widely depressed trullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest toward the base, and with straight margins
widely depressed ovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest below the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
widely depressed obovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest above the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
widely depressed obtrullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest toward the apex, and with straight margins
widely elliptic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest at the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
widely obdeltate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest at the apex, and with straight margins
widely oblong:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, and with parallel margins
widely obovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest above the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
widely obtrullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest toward the apex, and with straight margins
widely ovate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest below the middle, and with symmetrically curved margins
widely rhombic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest at the middle, and with straight margins
widely transversely rhombic:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1:1.2, widest at the middle and with straight margins
widely trullate:
a shape with length to width ratios of 1.2:1, widest toward the base, and with straight margins
winged:
with an extension emanating from the stem

X

No entries.

Y

No entries.

Z

zygomorphic:
flower shapes that are bilaterally symmetrical
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