Gardening How-to Articles

Native Alternatives Plant List

In conjunction with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden All-Region Guide Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants, the following plants have been selected by the handbook's author, C. Colston Burrell, as native alternatives to invasive plants for use in gardens, yards, and natural plantings. The list is organized by horticultural plant group: trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous plants, and grasses.

For each invasive species listed below, several natives are suggested as alternatives, along with their natural range in continental North America. Ideally, the alternative matches most or all of the invasive plant's desirable characteristics, such as flowers, fruit, fall color, and ease of care. The following checklist was used to select the recommended alternatives that most closely match the corresponding invasive species:

  • Is the plant locally or regionally native?
  • Are the flowers or fruit the same color?
  • Is the inflorescence the same shape and size?
  • Does the plant bloom at the same time?
  • Is the foliage similar in form, texture, and color?
  • Is the overall shape and size of the plant similar?
  • Does the plant have multiple seasons of interest?
  • Is the root system similar?
  • Is the plant easy to establish and maintain?
  • Will it grow in the same hardiness zone and under the same site conditions?

The plants marked with an asterisk (*) are profiled in detail in Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants. For additional guidance in choosing plants that do well in your region, refer to the USDA Hardiness Zone map.

See Herbaceous Plants and Grasses.

Trees

Invasive Tree Native Alternatives
Acacia auriculiformis, earleaf acacia
  • Annona glabra, pond apple—Florida
  • Bucida buceras, black olive—southern Florida
  • Quercus virginiana,* Virginia live oak—coastal Virginia, south to Florida, west to Texas and Mexico
Acer tataricum var. ginnala, Amur maple
  • Acer pensylvanica, goosefoot maple—Nova Scotia to Michigan, south to North Carolina and Tennessee, mostly in the mountains
  • Acer spicatum, mountain maple—Newfoundland to Saskatchewan, south to Pennsylvania and Minnesota, in the mountains to North Carolina
  • Aesculus pavia, red buckeye—North Carolina to Illinois, south to Florida and Texas
  • Amelanchier species,* serviceberries, throughout North America
  • Carpinus caroliniana,* musclewood—Maine and Florida, west to Minnesota and Texas
  • Cladrastis kentukea, yellowwood—North Carolina and West Virginia, south to Florida and Mississippi
  • Cornus alternifolia,* pagoda dogwood—Cape Breton highlands of Nova Scotia, west to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri
  • Cotinus obovatus,* American smoke tree—Tennessee and Missouri, south to Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas
  • Hamamelis vernalis, Ozark witch hazel—Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas
  • Hamamelis virginiana, witch-hazel—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas
  • Oxydendrum arboreum, sourwood—Pennsylvania to Indiana, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Prunus virginiana,* choke cherry—most of North America
  • Stewartia malacodendron,* silky stewartia—Appalachians from northern Virginia to Kentucky and Alabama
  • Stewartia ovata, mountain stewartia—coastal Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
Acer platanoides, Norway Maple; Acer pseudoplatanus, Large Maple, Sycamore Maple
  • Acer rubrum,* red maple—Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Florida and Texas
  • Acer macrophyllum,* big-leaf maple—Alaska, south to California
  • Acer saccharum, sugar maple—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Virginia and Missouri; to Georgia in the mountains
  • Celtis laevigata, sugar berry—Maryland, Illinois, and British Columbia, south to Florida, Texas, and Baja California
  • Gymnocladus dioica,* Kentucky coffeetree—New York to Minnesota, south to Virginia; South Dakota to Oklahoma
  • Halesia tetraptera, Carolina silverbell—North Carolina and West Virginia, south to Florida and Mississippi
  • Liquidambar styraciflua, sweetgum—New Jersey to Florida, west to Texas; Ohio river valley north to Ohio
  • Nyssa sylvatica,* black gum—Maine to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas
  • Quercus bicolor, swamp white oak—Massachusetts to Wisconsin, south to Virginia and Missouri
Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven
  • Acer macrophyllum,* big-leaf maple—Alaska, south to California
  • Amelanchier laevis,* Allegheny serviceberry—Nova Scotia and Ontario, south to Georgia and Iowa
  • Carya illinoinensis,* pecan—Indiana to Iowa, south to Louisiana, Texas, and Mexico
  • Carya cordiformis, bitternut—Maine to Minnesota, south to northern Florida and Texas
  • Cercis canadensis,* redbud—Pennsylvania and Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cladrastis kentukea,* yellowwood—Kentucky and North Carolina, west to Missouri and Arkansas
  • Diospyros virginiana, persimmon—Ontario to Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Gleditsia triacanthos, honeylocust—Pennsylvania to Nebraska, south to Alabama and Texas
  • Gymnocladus dioica,* Kentucky coffeetree—New York to Minnesota, south to Virginia; South Dakota to Oklahoma
  • Piscidia piscipula, Jamaica dogwood—southern Florida
  • Quercus species,* oaks—throughout North America
  • Rhus glabra, smooth sumac—throughout most of North America
  • Rhus typhina, staghorn sumac—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Tennessee
  • Sorbus sitchensis,* Sitka mountain ash—Alaska and Yukon, south to Montana and California
Albizia julibrissin, Mimosa, Silk Tree
  • Cercis canadensis,* redbud—Pennsylvania and Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cladrastis kentukea,* yellowwood—North Carolina and West Virginia, south to Florida and Mississippi
  • Cornus florida, flowering dogwood—Massachusetts to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas
  • Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis, thornless honeylocust—Pennsylvania to
  • Nebraska, south to Alabama and Texas
  • Oxydendrum arboreum,* sourwood—Pennsylvania to Indiana, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Stewartia malacodendron,* silky camellia—coastal plain from Virginia, south to Florida, and west to Louisiana
  • There is no good alternative suitable for California.
Alnus glutinosa, European Alder
  • Alnus incana subsp. rugosa,* speckled alder—Labrador to Alaska and
  • British Columbia, south to Virginia, Iowa, New Mexico, and California
  • Alnus serrulata, smooth alder—Nova Scotia, south to Florida, west to Nebraska and Texas
  • Amelanchier laevis,* Allegheny serviceberry—Nova Scotia and Ontario, south to Georgia and Iowa
  • Betula nigra,* river birch—Massachusetts and southeastern Minnesota, south to northern Florida and east Texas
  • Betula lenta,* black birch—Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia and Mississippi
  • Populus tremuloides,* quaking aspen—Newfoundland to Alaska and British Columbia, south to Pennsylvania and Iowa, and the mountains of New Mexico and California.
Bischofia javanica, Bishopwood
  • Fraxinus velutina, leatherleaf ash—Texas west to Utah and California
  • Ptelea trifoliata,* wafer ash, hop tree—Ontario to Minnesota, south to Florida and northern Mexico
  • Simarouba amara,* paradise tree—southern Florida
  • Zanthoxylum clava-herculis, Hercules' club—Virginia south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Zanthoxylum fagara, wild lime—Florida and Texas
Broussonetia papyrifera, Paper Mulberry
  • Catalpa speciosa,* northern catalpa—western Tennessee and adjacent Arkansas, north to Indiana and Illinois
  • Catalpa bignonioides, southern catalpa—Florida panhandle and adjacent Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi
  • Cercis canadensis,* redbud—Pennsylvania and Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Hydrangea quercifolia,* oak-leaf hydrangea—Georgia to Florida and Mississippi
  • Morus rubra,* red mulberry—Massachusetts to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas
  • Quercus species,* oaks—throughout North America
Casuarina equisetifolia, Australian Pine
  • Coccoloba diversifolia, pigeon plum—Florida
  • Juniperus virginiana,* eastern redcedar—Nova Scotia and Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Pinus clausa,* sand pine—Florida, Georgia, and Alabama
  • Sabal palmetto, cabbage palmetto—North Carolina to Florida and Louisiana
  • Taxodium distichum, baldcypress—Delaware, south to Florida, west to the central Mississippi Valley, and Texas
Cupaniopsis anacardioides, Carrotwood
  • Bursera simaruba, gumbo limbo—Florida
  • Lysiloma bahamense, wild tamarind—Florida
  • Simarouba amara,* paradise tree—southern Florida
  • Zanthoxylum clava-herculis, Hercules' club—Virginia south to Florida, west to Texas
Eucalyptus globulus, Tasmanian Blue Gum
  • Arbutus menziesii, Pacific madrone—British Columbia, south to Baja California
  • Calocedrus decurrens, incense cedar—Oregon to Utah and California
  • Cupressus arizonica (C. glabra),* Arizona cypress—Texas, west to Utah and California, south to central Mexico
  • Populus angustifolia, narrowleaf cottonwood—Alberta to Texas, California, and Mexico
  • Populus fremontii, Fremont cottonwood—Colorado to California, south to Texas and Mexico
  • Quercus douglasii, blue oak—California
  • Quercus engelmannii,* Engelmann oak—southern California
  • Quercus wislizeni, interior live oak—California
  • Sequoiadendron giganteum, giant sequoia—central California
  • Umbellularia californica, California laurel—Oregon and California
Ficus microcarpa, Ficus altissima, Ficus benghalensis, Figs
  • Bucida buceras,* black olive—southern Florida
  • Gordonia lasianthus, loblolly bay—North Carolina south to Florida, west to Mississippi
  • Magnolia virginiana,* sweetbay—Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas
  • Magnolia virginiana var. virginiana, swamp magnolia—Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas
  • Magnolia virginiana var. australis, southern sweetbay—Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas
  • Nyssa ogeche, Ogeechee lime—Georgia to northern and western Florida
  • Osmanthus americanus, devilwood—southern Virginia, south to Florida and west to Louisiana
  • Persea borbonia,* redbay—North Carolina and Arkansas, south to Florida and Texas; spotty distribution in the Mississippi Valley
  • Persea humilis,* silk bay—Florida
  • Persea palustris, swamp bay—Delaware, south to Florida, west to Texas
Ilex aquifolium, English Holly
  • Arctostaphylos columbiana,* hairy manzanita—British Columbia to California
  • Arbutus menziesii,* Pacific madrone—British Columbia south to Baja California
  • Ceanothus species,* wild lilacs—western North America
  • Lithocarpus densiflorus,* tan oak—Oregon and California
  • Quercus species,* scrub oaks—West Coast
  • Rhamnus (Frangula) californica,* coffee berry—California
Melia azedarach, Chinaberry
  • Aralia spinosa,* devil's walking stick—Delaware and Pennsylvania to Indiana, south to Florida and Texas
  • Carya illinoinensis,* pecan—Indiana to Iowa, to Louisiana, Texas and Mexico
  • Fraxinus dipetala,* flowering ash—Utah to California and Arizona
  • Fraxinus velutina,* leatherlieaf ash—Texas, west to Utah and California
  • Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis, thornless honeylocust—Pennsylvania to Nebraska, to Alabama and Texas
  • Rhus species,* sumacs, North America
Paulownia tomentosa, Princess Tree
  • Catalpa bignonioides, southern catalpa—Florida panhandle and adjacent Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi
  • Catalpa speciosa,* northern catalpa—western Tennessee and adjacent Arkansas, north to Indiana and Illinois; widely naturalized but considered invasive only in California
  • Gymnocladus dioicus,* Kentucky coffeetree—New York to Minnesota, south to Virginia; South Dakota to Oklahoma
  • Magnolia acuminata, cucumber tree—Quebec, south to Georgia, Louisiana, and Arkansas
Populus alba, White Poplar
  • Betula lenta,* sweet birch—Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia and Mississippi
  • Populus deltoides, eastern cottonwood—North America east of the Rockies
  • Populus fremontii, Fremont cottonwood—Colorado to California, south to Texas and Mexico
  • Populus grandidentata,* bigtooth aspen—Newfoundland and Manitoba, south to Virginia, Kentucky, and Iowa
Pyrus calleryana, Callery Pear
  • Amelanchier arborea, shadbush—Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Minnesota, south to northwest Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Amelanchier canadensis, shadblow—coastal Atlantic from Newfoundland to Mississippi
  • Amelanchier laevis,* Allegheny serviceberry—Nova Scotia and Ontario, south to Georgia and Iowa
  • Chionanthus virginicus,* fringe tree—New Jersey, Kentucky, and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cladrastis kentukea,* yellowwood—North Carolina and West Virginia, south to Florida and Mississippi
  • Crataegus viridis,* green hawthorn—Maryland and Illinois, south to Florida and Texas
  • Crataegus crus-galli var. inermis, thornless cock-spur hawthorn—Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Crataegus phaenopyrum, Washington hawthorn—Pennsylvania and Illinois, south to Missouri and Alabama
  • Halesia diptera var. magniflora,* two-winged silverbell—South Carolina and Tennessee, south to Florida and Texas
  • Halesia tetraptera, Carolina silverbell—North Carolina and West Virginia, south to Florida and Mississippi
  • Malus ioensis, crabapple—Wisconsin and Minnesota, south to Illinois and Missouri
  • Oxydendrum arboreum,* sourwood—Pennsylvania to Indiana, south to Florida and Louisiana
Quercus acutissima, Sawtooth Oak
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica, green ash—Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida and Texas
  • Quercus imbricaria,* shingle oak—Pennsylvania to Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Kansas
  • Quercus muehlenbergii, chinquapin oak—Vermont to Minnesota and Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Quercus nigra, water oak—New Jersey, south to Florida, west to central Mississippi Valley and Texas
  • Quercus phellos, willow oak—New York, south to Florida, west to Texas
Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust
  • Celtis species,* hackberries—throughout North America
  • Cladrastis kentukea,* yellowwood—North Carolina and West Virginia, south to Florida and Mississippi
  • Gleditsia triacanthos, honey locust—Pennsylvania to Nebraska, south to Alabama and Texas
  • Gymnocladus dioica,* Kentucky coffeetree—New York to Minnesota, south to Virginia, South Dakota, and Oklahoma; naturalized elsewhere
  • Parkinsonia (Cercidium) florida,* blue palo verde—Sonoran Desert
  • Populus tremuloides,* quaking aspen—Newfoundland to Alaska and British Columbia, south to Pennsylvania and Iowa; mountains of New Mexico and California
Salix × sepulcralis (Salix babylonica), Weeping Willow
  • Salix Nigra,* black willow—New Brunswick to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas
  • Taxodium distichum, bald cypress—New Jersey, south to Florida, west to the central Mississippi Valley and Texas
Sapium sebiferum (Triadica sebifera), Chinese Tallow Tree
  • Cercis canadensis,* redbud—Pennsylvania and Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cercis canadensis var. texensis, Texas redbud—Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico
  • Coccoloba uvifera, sea grape—Florida
  • Coccoloba diversifolia, pigeon plum—Florida
  • Cyrilla racemiflora, titi—southeastern Virginia to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Diospyros virginiana, persimmon—Ontario to Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Sassafras albidum,* sassafras—Maine to Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Styrax grandifolius, bigleaf snowbell—Virginia to Ohio and Illinois, south to Florida and Texas
Schefflera actinophylla, Umbrella Tree
  • Bucida buceras,* black olive—Florida
  • Piscidia piscipula, Jamaica dogwood—southern Florida
  • Ptelea trifoliata,* wafer ash—Ontario to Minnesota, south to Florida and northern Mexico
Sorbus aucuparia, European Mountain Ash
  • Amelanchier laevis,* Allegheny serviceberry—Nova Scotia and Ontario, south to Georgia and Iowa
  • Diospyros virginiana, persimmon—New Jersey to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rhus glabra,* smooth sumac—most of North America
  • Sorbus americana,* American mountain ash—Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Maryland, Illinois, and Minnesota; in the mountains to Georgia
  • Sorbus scopulina, Greene's mountain ash—West Coast
  • Sorbus sitchensis,* western mountain ash—West Coast
  • Viburnum opulus var. americanum,* cranberry viburnum—Newfoundland and south to British Columbia, Indiana, and Washington
Ulmus pumila, Ulmus parvifolia, Siberian Elm
  • Celtis laevigata, sugarberry—Maryland, Illinois, and British Columbia, south to Florida, Texas, and Baja California
  • Celtis occidentalis,* hackberry—Quebec to Manitoba and North Dakota, south to Florida and New Mexico
  • Gymnocladus dioica,* Kentucky coffeetree—New York to Minnesota, south to Virginia; South Dakota to Oklahoma
  • Maclura pomifera, Osage orange—Oklahoma and Texas
  • Ostrya virginiana, hop hornbeam—Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida and Texas
  • Ulmus alata,* winged elm—Maryland to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas

Shrubs

Invasive Shrub Native Alternatives
Ardisia elliptica, Shoebutton Ardisia
  • Ardisia escallonioides,* marlberry—Florida
  • Casasia clusiifolia, seven-year apple—Florida
  • Lyonia lucida, fedderbush lyonia—Virginia, south to Florida and west to Texas
  • Lyonia fruticosa, coastal plain staggerbush—South Carolina to Florida
  • Magnolia virginiana, sweetbay—Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas
  • Morella (Myrica) cerifera,* southern wax myrtle—New Jersey south to Florida, west to the lower Mississippi Valley and Texas
  • Osmanthus americanus, devilwood—southern Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Persea borbonia,* redbay—Florida
  • Persea humilis,* silk bay—Florida
  • Persea palustris, swamp bay—Florida
  • Psychotria species,* wild coffee—Florida
Berberis thunbergii, Japanese Barberry
  • Ceanothus americanus,* New Jersey tea—Quebec and Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cercocarpus species, mountain mahogany—Alberta and British Columbia, south to Texas, California, and Mexico
  • Clethra alnifolia, summersweet—Maine, south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Croton alabamensis, Alabama croton—Alabama, Tennessee, and Texas
  • Diervilla lonicera,* bush honeysuckle—Newfoundland to Saskatchewan, south to Virginia and Minnesota, and mountains to Tennesee
  • Diervilla sessilifolia, southern bush honeysuckle—Virginia and West Virginia, south to Georgia and Alabama
  • Fothergilla gardenii,* witch alder—North Carolina, south to Florida and Alabama
  • Fothergilla major, mountain witch alder—North Carolina, south to Georgia and Alabama
  • Ilex verticillata,* winterberry holly—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Arkansas
  • Itea virginica,* Virginia sweetspire—New Jersey and Missouri, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Morella (Myrica) pensylvanica,* bayberry—Newfoundland, south along the coast to North Carolina; west along the Saint Lawrence and the eastern Great Lakes to Ohio
  • Symphoricarpos orbiculatus,* coralberry—New Jersey and South Dakota, south to Georgia and Texas
Buddleja davidii and Hybrids, Butterfly Bush
  • Aesculus parviflora,* bottlebrush buckeye—central Alabama and adjacent Georgia
  • Amorpha canescens, leadplant—Quebec to Manitoba, south to Arkansas, Texas and New Mexico
  • Ceanothus griseus, Carmel mountain lilac—California
  • Ceanothus purpureus, holly-leaf ceanothus—California
  • Ceanothus thyrsiflorus,* wild lilac—southern Oregon, south to southern California
  • Ceanothus tomentosus, Ramona lilac—California
  • Cephalanthus occidentalis,* buttonbush—New Brunswick and Minnesota, south to Florida and Mexico, west to California
  • Chilopsis linearis,* desert willow—Colorado and California, south to Mexico
  • Clethra alnifolia,* summersweet—Maine, south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Cyrilla racemiflora, titi—southeastern Virginia south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Ericameria nauseosa,* rabbitbrush—Alberta, south to Texas, Mexico, and California
  • Philadelphus lewisii, mock orange—Manitoba and British Columbia, south to Idaho and California
  • Sambucus canadensis, elderberry—Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida and Mexico
Caragana arborescens, Siberian Pea Shrub
  • Cercidium microphyllum, little-leaf palo verde—California, Arizona, and Mexico
  • Ericameria nauseosa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus),* rubber rabbitbrush—Alberta, south to Texas, Mexico, and California
  • Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens (F. neomexicana),* desert olive—Colorado and Utah, south to Texas and California
  • Jamesia americana,* waxflower, cliffbush—Wyoming to California, south to New Mexico and Arizona
  • Leucophyllum frutescens,* Texas ranger—Texas, northern Mexico
  • Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa,* honey mesquite—Kansas and Texas west to New Mexico and Mexico
  • Purshia glandulosa, desert bitterbrush—California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona
  • Purshia tridentata,* antelope brush—Alberta to British Columbia, south to New Mexico and California
  • Ribes aureum,* clove currant—Saskatchewan to British Columbia, south to New Mexico and California
Cotoneaster apiculatus, Cotoneaster franchetii, Cotoneaster microphyllus, Cotoneaster pannosus, Cotoneaster lacteus, Cotoneaster
  • Arctostaphylos densiflora, vinehill manzanita—central California
  • Arctostaphylos nevadensis,* pinemat manzanita—British Columbia, south to Nevada and California
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi,* bearberry—Labrador and British Columbia, south to Virginia, New Mexico, and California
  • Ceanothus species,* wild lilacs, native to western North America
  • Heteromeles arbutifolia,* toyon—California to Baja California
  • Myrica gale, sweet gale—Nova Scotia to Alaska, south and west to New Jersey and the Great Lakes region; west to Oregon
  • Rhamnus crocea, redberry—Arizona and California
  • Shepherdia species,* buffaloberry—northern North America, south to Pennsylvania, Kansas, California, and Mexico
  • Symphoricarpos albus, snowberry—Nova Scotia to Alberta, south to Virginia and Minnesota
  • Symphoricarpos orbiculatus,* coralberry—New Jersey to South Dakota, south to Georgia and Texas
  • Symphoricarpos var. laevigatus, shrub snowberry—British Columbia, south to Arizona and California
  • Vaccinium species,* blueberry—most of North America
Crataegus monogyna, English Hawthorn
  • Amelanchier species,* serviceberries—throughout North America
  • Chionanthus virginicus,* fringe tree—New Jersey, Kentucky, and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cratagus crus-galli,* cock-spur hawthorn—Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Viburnum prunifolium,* black-haw viburnum—Connecticut to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas
Cytisus scoparius, Scotch Broom
  • Carpenteria californica, tree anemone—central California
  • Ceanothus species,* wild lilacs—western North America
  • Dendromecon harfordii, island bush poppy—California
  • Ephedra species, Mormon teas—Wyoming to Oregon, south to Texas and California
  • Ericameria (Chrysocoma) nauseosa,* rubber rabbitbrush—Alberta, south to Texas, Mexico, and California
  • Ericameria parryii, Parry's rabbitbrush—Saskatchewan, south to New Mexico and California
  • Fremontodendron californicum, flannel bush—California
  • Holodiscus discolor,* oceanspray—Alberta and British Columbia, south to Arizona and California
  • Jamesia americana,* waxflower, cliffbush—Wyoming to California, south to New Mexico and Arizona
  • Lupinus arboreus,* tree lupine—central California
  • Morella (Myrica) cerifera,* southern wax myrtle—New Jersey south to Florida, west to the lower Mississippi Valley and Texas
  • Morella (Myrica) pensylvanica,* bayberry—Newfoundland, south to North Carolina, west to the Great Lakes
  • Oemleria cerasiformis, Indian plum—British Columbia south to California
  • Prunus maritima, beach plum—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Maryland and Michigan
  • Purshia tridentata,* antelope brush—Alberta to British Columbia, south to New Mexico and California
  • Ribes aureum,* golden currant—Saskatchewan to British Columbia, south to New Mexico and California
Elaeagnus angustifolia, Russian Olive
  • Amelanchier species,* serviceberries—throughout North America
  • Baccharis salicifolia, mule flat—Colorado and California, south to Texas and Mexico
  • Carpinus caroliniana,* musclewood —Maine and Florida, west to Minnesota and Texas
  • Elaeagnus commutata,* silverberry—Ontario to Alaska, south to Iowa; in the Rockies to Colorado, British Columbia
  • Oemleria (Osmaronia) cerasiformis,* Indian plum—British Columbia, south to California
  • Rhamnus (Frangula) californica, coffee berry—California
  • Salix petiolaris, meadow willow—northern North America, west to Manitoba
  • Salix scouleriana, Scouler's willow—Alberta and British Columbia, south to New Mexico and Texas
  • Salix sericea,* silky willow—Nova Scotia to Michigan, south to Georgia and Missouri
  • Shepherdia argentea,* silver buffaloberry—Minnesota and Saskatchewan to British Columbia, south to Iowa and California
  • Shepherdia canadensis, russet buffaloberry—Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New York, Indiana, and Arizona
Elaeagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive
  • Amelanchier species,* serviceberries—throughout North America
  • Baccharis neglecta, groundsel bush—Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
  • Baccharis halimifolia,* groundsel tree—Massachusetts, south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Carpinus caroliniana,* musclewood—Maine and Florida, west to Minnesota and Texas
  • Hamamelis virginiana,* witch hazel—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas
  • Morella (Myrica) cerifera,* southern wax myrtle, bayberry—New Jersey, south to Florida, west to the lower Mississippi Valley and Texas
  • Shepherdia canadensis, russet buffaloberry—Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New York, Indiana, and Arizona
  • Styrax americanus,* American snowbell—Virginia and Missouri, south to Florida and Louisiana
Euonymus alatus, Winged Euonymus
  • Aronia arbutifolia, red chokeberry—New England and Florida, west to Missouri and Texas
  • Aronia melanocarpa,* black chokeberry—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Euonymus atropurpurea, wahoo—New York and Minnesota, south to Virginia and Oklahoma
  • Fothergilla major, witch alder—North Carolina to Georgia and Alabama
  • Itea virginica,* Virginia sweetspire—New Jersey and Missouri, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Leucothoe racemosa, fetterbush—Massachusetts and New York, south to Florida, west to Tennessee and Texas
  • Rhus aromatica,* fragrant sumac—Vermont to Minnesota, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Rhus copallina,* winged sumac—Maine to Wisconsin, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rhus glabra, smooth sumac—Ontario, west to Manitoba, south to Georgia and Texas
  • Vaccinium corymbosum,* highbush blueberry—Nova Scotia to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas
  • Viburnum var. nudum,* smooth withered—Massachusetts south to Florida, west to Texas
Euonymus fortunei, Fortune's Euonymus
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi,* bearberry, kinnikinnick—Labrador and British Columbia, south to Virginia, New Mexico, and California
  • Euonymus americana, hearts-a-bustin'—New York, south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Euonymus obovata, running strawberry bush—New York to Michigan, south to North Carolina and Missouri
  • Decumaria barbara,* wood vamp, climbing hydrangea—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Mahonia repens, creeping mahonia—North Dakota to British Columbia, south to New Mexico and California
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia,* Virginia creeper—Quebec, Manitoba, and Utah, south to Florida and Texas
  • Paxistima canbyi, cliffgreen—Pennsylvania to Virginia, Kentucky, and Ohio
  • Vaccinium crassifolium,* creeping blueberry—Virginia to Georgia
  • Vaccinium elliottii, Elliott's blueberry—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Texas and Arkansas
  • Waldsteinia fragarioides,* barren strawberry—Maine and Quebec, west to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Indiana
  • Xanthorrhiza simplicissima, shrub yellowroot—mostly in the Appalachians from New York, south to Florida and Louisiana
Ficus carica, Edible Fig
  • Calycanthus occidentalis,* western sweetshrub—California
  • Calycanthus floridus, eastern sweetshrub—Quebec, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Clusia rosea, pitch apple—Florida
  • Ribes aureum, clove currant—California
  • Rubus parviflorus, thimbleberry—Ontario to Alaska, south to Illinois, New Mexico, and California
Hibiscus syriacus, Rose of Sharon
  • Clethra acuminata, cinnamon clethra—mountains of Pennsylvania, south to Alabama
  • Franklinia alatamaha, Franklin tree—Georgia; extinct in the wild
  • Gordonia lasianthis, loblolly bay—North Carolina, south to Florida, west to Mississippi
  • Hibiscus coccineus,* scarlet mallow—Georgia and Florida
  • Magnolia virginiana,* sweetbay—Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas
  • Stewartia malacodendron,* silky camellia—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
Lantana camara, Lantana
  • Ardisia escallonioides,* marlberry—Florida; also Puerto Rico
  • Erythrina herbacea,* coral bean—North Carolina, south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Ernodea littoralis, golden creeper—Florida; also Puerto Rico
  • Lantana involucrata, lantana—central and southern Florida; also Puerto Rico
  • Salvia coccinea, scarlet sage—South Carolina, south to Florida, west to Texas
Ligustrum amurense, Ligustrum japonicum, Ligustrum lucidum, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Ligustrum sinense, Ligustrum vulgare, Privets
  • Agarista populifolia,* Florida leucothoe—South Carolina to Florida
  • Arctostaphylos columbiana,* hairy manzanita—British Columbia to California
  • Arctostaphylos patula, greenleaf manzanita—Alberta and British Columbia, south to Colorado, Arizona, and California
  • Aronia arbutifolia,* red chokeberry—New England and Florida, west to Missouri and Texas
  • Aronia melanocarpa,* black chokeberry—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Ceanothus velutinus,* redroot—South Dakota to British Columbia, south to Colorado and California
  • Forestiera acuminata, swamp privet—Illinois down the Mississippi Valley to Florida and Texas
  • Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens (neomexicana),* desert olive—Colorado and Utah, south to Texas and California
  • Ilex glabra, inkberry—coastal New York, south to Florida, west to Mississippi
  • Illicium floridanum, Florida star anise—Gulf Coast states from Florida to Louisiana
  • Lindera benzoin,* spicebush—Maine and Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Lithocarpus densiflorus,* tan oak—Oregon and California
  • Morella californica, California wax myrtle—British Columbia, south to California
  • Morella (Myrica) cerifera,* southern wax myrtle—New Jersey south to Florida, west to the lower Mississippi Valley and Texas
  • Osmanthus americanus,* devilwood—southern Virginia, south to Florida and west to Louisiana
  • Prunus caroliniana,* Carolina cherry laurel—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Viburnum prunifolium,* black haw—Connecticut to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas
Lonicera tatarica, Tartarian Honeysuckle; Lonicera maackii, Amur Honeysuckle; Lonicera morrowii, Morrow's Honeysuckle; Lonicera xylosteum, Dwarf Honeysuckle
  • Aronia melanocarpa,* black chokeberry—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Cornus amomum, silky dogwood—Massachusetts and New York, south to Georgia and Tennessee
  • Cornus racemosa,* gray dogwood—Maine to Manitoba, south to Virginia, Illinois and Missouri
  • Cornus sericea,* red osier dogwood—northeastern United States
  • Ilex decidua, possumhaw
  • Ilex verticillata,* winterberry—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Arkansas
  • Lindera benzoin,* spicebush—Maine and Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Lonicera canadensis, fly honeysuckle—Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan, south to North Carolina, Tennessee, and Iowa
  • Lonicera involucrata,* twinberry—Ontario and Alaska, south to Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, and California
  • Sambucus canadensis, elderberry—Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida and Mexico
  • Sambucus racemosa, scarlet elderberry—Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to North Carolina, Minnesota and California
  • Viburnum acerifolium, maple-leaf viburnum—Maine, Ontario, and Wisconsin, south to Georgia and Louisiana
  • Viburnum dentatum,* arrowwood—Massachusetts south to Florida, west to Texas
Myoporum laetum, Myoporum
  • Arctostaphylos columbiana,* hairy manzanita—British Columbia to California
  • Arbutus menziesii,* Pacific madrone—British Columbia south to Baja California
  • Ceanothus species,* wild lilacs—western North America
  • Carpenteria californica,* tree anenome—central California
  • Philadelphus lewisii, mock orange— Manitoba and British Columbia, south to Idaho and California
  • Rhamnus californica,* coffee berry—California
  • Sorbus species,* mountain ash—northern North America, south in Appalachians to Georgia, to Minnesota, and the Rockies to Mexico, west to California
Nandina domestica, Heavenly Bamboo
  • Agarista populifolia,* Florida leucothoe—South Carolina to Florida
  • Aralia spinosa,* devil's walking stick—Delaware and Pennsylvania to Indiana, south to Florida and Texas
  • Ilex glabra, inkberry—coastal areas from New York south to Florida, west to Mississippi
  • Ilex cassine, dahoon—North Carolina south to Florida, west to Texas; also Puerto Rico
  • Ilex vomitoria,* yaupon—coastal Virginia, west to Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Leucothoe fontanesiana, drooping leucothoe—Virginia and Kentucky, south to Georgia and Alabama
  • Lyonia lucida, fetterbush lyonia—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Rhododendron minus, piedmont rhododendron—North Carolina and Kentucky, south to Georgia and Alabama
Rhamnus cathartica, Buckthorn
  • Aronia melanocarpa,* black chokeberry—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Cornus racemosa,* gray dogwood—Maine to Manitoba, south to Virginia, Illinois, and Missouri
  • Crataegus species,* hawthorns—throughout North America
  • Euonymus atropurpurea, wahoo—New York and Minnesota, south to Virginia and Oklahoma
  • Hamamelis virginiana,* witch hazel—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rhamnus caroliniana,* Carolina buckthorn—New Jersey to Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rhus species,* sumac—throughout North America
  • Ptelea trifoliata, wafer ash—Ontario to Minnesota, south to Florida and Northern Mexico
  • Staphylea trifolia, bladdernut—Quebec to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Oklahoma
  • Viburnum prunifolium, blackhaw*—Connecticut to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas
Rhamnus frangula (Frangula alnus), Tall Hedge Buckthorn
  • Aronia melanocarpa,* black chokeberry—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Crataegus species,* hawthorns—North America
  • Ilex verticillata,* winterberry—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Arkansas
  • Lindera benzoin,* spicebush—Maine and Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rhamnus caroliniana,* Carolina buckthorn—New Jersey to Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rhus species,* sumacs—throughout North America
  • Viburnum nudum var. nudum,* smooth witherod—Massachusetts, south to
  • Florida, west to Texas
Rhodotypos scandens, Jetbead
  • Hydrangea quercifolia,* oakleaf hydrangea—Georgia to Florida and Mississippi
  • Neviusia alabamensis,* Alabama snow-wreath—Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Arkansas
  • Philadelphus lewisii, mockorange—Manitoba and British Columbia, south to Idaho and California
  • Physocarpus opulifolius,* ninebark—New Brunswick to Ontario, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Viburnum acerifolium, maple-leaf viburnum—Maine, Ontario, and Wisconsin, south to Georgia and Louisiana
  • Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood—Massachusetts south to Florida, west to Texas
Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose
Rosa rugosa, Beach Rose
  • Clethra alnifolia,* summersweet—Maine south to Florida, and west to Texas
  • Prunus virginiana, choke cherry—Most of North America
  • Rosa setigera, * climbing prairie rose—Ontario to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rubus odoratus, purple-flowering raspberry—Quebec to Michigan, south to Georgia and Tennessee, scattered locations elsewhere.
Scaevola sericea var. taccada, Beach Naupaka
  • Casasia clusiifolia, seven-year apple—South Florida and the Florida Keys
  • Morella (Myrica) cerifera,* southern wax myrtle—New Jersey south to Florida, west to the lower Mississippi
  • Valley and Texas
  • Myrsine guianensis, rapanea—Florida and the Caribbean.
  • Scaevola plumieri,* inkberry—Florida, Louisiana, and Texas
Schinus terebinthifolius, Brazilian Pepper Tree
  • Baccharis halimifolia,* groundsel bush—Massachusetts south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Erythrina herbacea, coral bean—North Carolina, south to Florida and west to Texas
  • Heteromeles arbutifolia, toyon—California to Baja
  • Lyonothamnus floribundus subsp. aspleniifolius, Santa Cruz Island ironwood—southern California
  • Psychotria nervosa,* wild coffee—Florida
  • Ptelea trifoliata, wafer ash—Ontario to Minnesota, south to Florida and northern Mexico
  • Rhus copallina,* winged sumac—Maine to Wisconsin, south to Florida and Texas
  • Rhus glabra, smooth sumac—Ontario, west to Manitoba, south to Georgia and Texas
  • Simarouba glauca,* paradise tree—Florida
  • Umbellularia californica, California Bay—Oregon and California
  • Zanthoxylum fagara, wild lime—Florida and Texas
Spiraea japonica, Japanese Spirea
  • Ceanothus americanus,* New Jersey tea—Quebec and Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas
  • Diervilla lonicera,* bush honeysuckle—Virginia and Minnesota, and in the mountains to Tennessee
  • Fothergilla gardenii,* witch alder—North Carolina south to Florida and Alabama
  • Itea virginica,* Virginia sweetspire—New Jersey and Missouri, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Rhododendron atlanticum, coast azalea—New Jersey and Pennsylvania, south to Georgia
  • Spiraea alba, white spirea—Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to North Carolina and Missouri
  • Spiraea betulifolia,* shiny-leaf meadowsweet—New Jersey and Pennsylvania, south to Florida and Alabama; Ontario and Minnesota west to British Columbia and Oregon
  • Spiraea densiflora,* mountain spirea—Alberta and British Columbia, south to Wyoming and California
Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarisk
  • Ceanothus species,* wild lilacs, western North America
  • Cercis canadensis var. texensis, Texas redbud—Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico
  • Chilopsis linearis,* desert willow—Colorado to California, south to New Mexico and Mexico
  • Fallugia paradoxa,* Apache plume—southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas
  • Holodiscus discolor,* ocean spray—Alberta and British Columbia, south to Arizona and California
  • Neviusia alabamensis,* Alabama snow-wreath—Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Arkansas
  • Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa,* honey mesquite—Kansas and Texas, west to New Mexico
  • Sophora secundiflora, mescal bean—Texas and Arizona
  • Spiraea douglasii,* rose spirea—Alaska, south to Montana and California
  • Spiraea tomentosa, hardhack—New Brunswick to Ontario, south to Georgia and Louisiana
Taxus cuspidata, Japanese Yew
  • Juniperus communis var. depressa, common juniper—northern North America, south to Mid-Atlantic, Nebraska, and California
  • Juniperus virginiana,* eastern redcedar—eastern and central North America
  • Taxus canadensis,* American yew—Newfoundland and Manitoba, south to Virginia, Tennessee, and Iowa
  • Taxus brevifolia, Pacific yew—Alaska south to California
  • Taxus floridanum, Florida yew—Peninsular Florida
  • Thuja occidentalis,* Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to North
  • Carolina, Tennessee, and Indiana
  • Thuja plicata, western red cedar—Alaska south along the west slope of the Rockies to California
  • Torreya taxifolia, Florida nutmeg—Peninsular Florida
Viburnum dilatatum, Linden Viburnum
Viburnum lentago, Tea Viburnum
Viburnum plicatum, Double-File Viburnum
Viburnum sieboldii, Siebold Viburnum
  • Aronia arbutifolia,* red chokeberry—New England and Florida, west to
  • Missouri and Texas
  • Aronia melanocarpa,* black chokeberry—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Callicarpa americana,* American beautyberry—Virginia and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Ilex montana,* mountain holly—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Arkansas
  • Ilex verticillata,* winterberry holly—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Arkansas
  • Neviusia alabamensis,* Alabama snow-wreath—Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Arkansas
  • Sambucus racemosa,* scarlet elder—Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to North Carolina, Minnesota, and California
  • Viburnum acerifolium, maple-leaf viburnum—Maine, Ontario, and Wisconsin, south to Georgia and Louisiana
  • Viburnum nudum var. nudum,* smooth withered—Massachusetts south to
  • Florida, west to Texas
  • Viburnum opulus var. americanum,* American highbush cranberry—Newfoundland and south to British Columbia, Indiana, and Washington
Viburnum opulus var. opulus, European Cranberry Bush
  • Hydrangea quercifolia,* oak-leaf hydrangea—Georgia to Florida and Mississippi
  • Ilex verticillata,* winterberry—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Arkansas
  • Sambucus racemosa,* scarlet elder—Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to North Carolina, Minnesota, and California
  • Viburnum edule, squashberry—Newfoundland, Labrador, and Alaska, south to Pennsylvania, Iowa, and Washington
  • Viburnum opulus var. americanum,* American highbush cranberry—Newfoundland and south to British Columbia, Indiana, and Washington
  • Viburnum prunifolium,* black haw—Connecticut to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas
Viburnum lantana, Wayfaring Tree
  • Calycanthus floridus, sweetshrub—Pennsylvania to Florida and Mississippi
  • Clethra alnifolia,* summersweet—Maine, south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Itea virginica,* Virginia sweetspire—New Jersey and Missouri, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Lindera benzoin,* spicebush—Maine and Ontario, south to Florida and Texas
  • Neviusia alabamensis,* Alabama snow-wreath—Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Arkansas
  • Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides,* witherod—Newfoundland and Michigan, south in the mountains to Georgia
  • Viburnum nudum var. nudum,* smooth withered—Massachusetts south to
  • Florida, west to Texas
Vitex agnus-castus, Chaste Tree
  • Aesculus parviflora,* bottle-brush buckeye—Alabama and Georgia
  • Aesculus pavia, red buckeye—North Carolina to Illinois, south to Florida and Texas
  • Amorpha fruticosa, wild indigo—New York to North Dakota, south to Florida and Texas, west to California
  • Callicarpa americana,* American beautyberry—Virginia and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Ceanothus thyrsiflorus,* California lilac—southern California, north to southern Oregon
  • Chionanthus virginicus,* fringe tree—New Jersey, Kentucky, and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Clethra alnifolia,* summersweet—Maine south to Florida, west to Texas
  • Elliottia racemosa, Georgia plume—South Carolina and Georgia
  • Fothergilla major,* mountain witch alder—North Carolina to Georgia and Alabama Morella (Myrica) cerifera,* southern wax myrtle—New Jersey, south to Florida, west to lower Mississippi Valley and Texas
  • Oxydendrum arboreum,* sourwood—Pennsylvania to Indiana, south to Florida and Louisiana

Vines

Invasive Vine Native Alternatives
Akebia quinata, Five-Leaf Akebia
  • Campsis radicans,* trumpet vine—Pennsylvania to Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Clematis texensis, scarlet clematis—Texas
  • Clematis viorna, leatherflower—Pennsylvania to Missouri, south to Georgia and Arkansas
  • Decumaria barbara, wild hydrangea vine—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Lonicera sempervirens,* trumpet honeysuckle—Connecticut to Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia,* Virginia creeper—Quebec, Manitoba, and Utah, south to Florida and Texas
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata, Porcelain Berry
  • Ampelopsis arborea,* peppervine—Maryland to Missouri, south to Florida, Texas, and New Mexico
  • Aristolochia tomentosa, hairy pipevine—Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Florida and Texas
  • Clematis pitcheri, bluebill—Indiana, Iowa, and Nebraska, south to Mississippi, Texas, and New Mexico
  • Cocculus carolinus, coralbead—Virginia to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
  • Gelsemium sempervirens,* Carolina jessamine—Virginia and Arkansas, south to Florida, Texas, and Louisiana
  • Lonicera sempervirens,* trumpet honeysuckle—Connecticut to Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia,* Virginia creeper—Quebec, Manitoba, and Utah, south to Florida and Texas
Celastrus orbiculatus, Oriental Bittersweet
  • Celastrus scandens,* American bittersweet—New Brunswick to Manitoba, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cocculus carolinus, coralbead—Virginia to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia,* Virginia creeper—Quebec, Manitoba, and Utah, south to Florida and Texas
Hedera helix, English Ivy
  • Arctostaphylos nevadensis,* pinemat—British Columbia, south to Nevada and California
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi,* bearberry—Labrador and British Columbia, south to Virginia, New Mexico, and California
  • Asarum species,* wild gingers, North America
  • Baccharis pilularis, dwarf coyote brush—Oregon and California
  • Decumaria barbara,* wood vamp—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Dryopteris species, woodferns, North America
  • Eurybia (Aster) macrophylla, big-leaf aster—Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Georgia and Missouri
  • Gaultheria shallon,* salal—Alaska and British Columbia, south to northern California
  • Mahonia nervosa,* longleaf mahonia—British Columbia, south to California and Idaho
  • Mahonia repens, creeping mahonia—North Dakota to British Columbia, south to New Mexico and California
  • Pachysandra procumbens,* Allegheny spurge—North Carolina and Kentucky, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia,* Virginia creeper—Quebec, Manitoba, and Utah, south to Florida and Texas
  • Paxistima canbyi, cliff green—Pennsylvania and Ohio, south to North Carolina and Tennessee
  • Vaccinium crassifolium,* creeping blueberry—Virginia to Georgia
  • Vancouveria hexandra, inside-out flower—British Columbia, south to California
  • Waldsteinia fragarioides,* barren strawberry—Maine and Quebec, west to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Indiana
  • Xanthorhiza simplicissima,* shrub yellowroot—New York, south to Florida and Louisiana
Jasminum dichotomum, Jasminum fluminense, Jasmine
  • Berchemia scandens, supple Jack—Virginia to Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Cocculus carolinus, coralbead—Virginia to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
  • Gelsemium rankinii, swamp jessamine—North Carolina, south to Florida and Louisiana
  • Gelsemium sempervirens,* Carolina Jessamine—Virginia and Arkansas, south to Florida, Texas, and Louisiana
  • Jacquinia keyensis, joewood—Florida
  • Smilax walteri, coral greenbriar—New Jersey, south to Florida, west to the Lower Mississippi Valley
Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle
  • Bignonia capreolata, crossvine—Virginia to Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Campsis radicans,* trumpet vine—Pennsylvania to Missouri, south to Florida and Texas
  • Clematis columbiana,* rock clematis—Manitoba to British Columbia, south to Texas and Oregon
  • Decumaria barbara,* wild hydrangea vine—Virginia, south to Florida, west to Louisiana
  • Gelsemium sempervirens,* Carolina jessamine—Virginia and Arkansas, south to Florida Texas, and Louisiana
  • Lonicera ciliosa, orange honeysuckle—British Columbia, south to Montana and California
  • Lonicera dioica, limber honeysuckle—Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, south to North Carolina and Oklahoma
  • Lonicera sempervirens,* scarlet honeysuckle—Connecticut to Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia,* Virginia creeper—Quebec, Manitoba, and Utah, south to Florida and Texas
  • Passiflora incarnata, passion flower—Pennsylvania to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
Lygodium japonicum, Japanese Climbing Fern
  • Cocculus carolius, coralbead—Virginia to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
  • Clematis texensis, scarlet clematis—Texas
  • Gelsemium sempervirens, Carolina jessamine—Virginia and Arkansas, south to Florida, Texas, and Louisiana
  • Lygodium palmatum,* American climbing fern—Maine to Ohio, south to Georgia and Mississippi
Merremia tuberosa, Wood Rose
  • Cocculus carolinus, coralbead—Virginia to Kansas, south to Florida and Texas
  • Dalbergia ecastaphyllum, coin vine—Florida
  • Ipomoea pes-caprae,* railroad vine—South Carolina to Florida and Texas
  • Smilax walteri, coral greenbriar—New Jersey, south to Florida, west to the lower Mississippi Valley
Wisteria floribunda, Japanese Wisteria
Wisteria sinensis, Chinese Wisteria
Wisteria frutescens (macrostachya),* American Wisteria—Virginia and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas

See Herbaceous Plants and Grasses.

C. Colston Burrell is an avid plantsman, garden designer, and award-winning author. His books include Hellebores: A Comprehensive Guide (Timber Press, 2007), winner of the AHS Book Award; Perennial Combinations (Rodale, 1999), a Garden Book Club Best Seller; and A Gardener's Encyclopedia of Wildflowers (Rodale, 1997). He is the editor of several BBG handbooks, most recently Native Alternative to Invasive Plants (2006) and Intimate Gardens (2005). He gardens on ten acres in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. Learn more at www.ccolstonburrell.com.

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